It Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience good enough for William Blake. The "inner", then, is our personal idiom of experiencing our bodies, other people, the animate and inanimate world: imagination, dreams, phantasy, and beyond that to ever further reaches of experience.
The stars as I perceive them are no more or less in my brain than the stars as I imagine them. I do not imagine them to be in my head, any more than I see them in my head. The relation of experience to behaviour is not that of inner to outer. My experience is not inside my head. My experience of this room is out there in the room. To say that my experience is intra-psychic is to presuppose that there is a Amor de Luna - Coz - Revuelta that my experience is in My psyche is my experience, my experience Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience my psyche.
Many people used to believe that angels moved the stars. It now appears that they do not. As a result of this and like revelations, many people do not now believe in angels. Many people used to believe that the "seat" of the soul was somewhere in the brain. Since brains began to be opened up frequently, no one has seen "the soul". As a result of this and like revelations, many people do not now believe in the soul. Who could suppose that angels move the stars, or be so superstitious as to suppose that because one cannot see one"s soul at the end of a microscope it does not exist?
Our task is both to experience and to conceive the concrete, that is Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience say, reality in its fullness and wholeness. As we are concerned here with human beings, our two most relevant variants are person as persona, mask, part being played; and person as actual self. We can begin from concepts of the single person, from the relations between two or more persons, from groups or from society at A Perfect Rendition - The Beatles - Strawberry Fields Forever or from the material world, and conceive of individuals as secondary.
We can derive the main determinants of our individual and social behaviour from external exigencies. All these views are partial vistas and partial concepts. Theoretically one needs a spiral of expanding and contracting schemata that enable us to move freely and without discontinuity from varying degrees of abstraction to greater or lesser degrees of concreteness. Theory is the articulated vision of experience. This book begins and ends with the person.
Can human beings be persons today? Can a man be his actual self with another man or woman? Before we can ask such an optimistic question as "What is a personal relationship? We are concerned with the possibility of man. This question can be asked only through its facets. Is love possible? Is freedom possible? Whether or not all, or some, or no human beings are persons, I wish to define a person in a twofold way: in terms of experience, Come Back Baby - Screaming Lord Sutch - Story a centre of orientation of the objective universe; and in terms of behaviour, as the origin of actions.
Personal experience transforms a given field into a field of intention and action: only through action can our experience be transformed. It is tempting and facile to regard "persons" as only separate objects in space, who can be studied as any other natural objects can be studied.
But just as Kierkegaard remarked that one will never find consciousness by looking down a microscope at brain cells or anything else, so one will never find persons by studying persons as though they were only objects. A person is the me or you, he or she, whereby an object is experienced. Are these centres of experience, and origins of actions, living in entirely unrelated worlds of their own composition?
Everyone must refer here to their own experience. My own experience as a centre of experience and origin of action tells me that this is not so. My experience and my action occur in a social field of reciprocal influence and interaction. I experience myself, identifiable as Ronald Laing by myself and others, as experienced by and acted upon by others, who refer to that person I call "me" as "you" or "him", or grouped together as "one of us" or "one of them" or "one of you".
This feature of personal relations does not arise in the correlation of the behaviour of non-personal objects. Many social scientists deal with their embarrassment by denying its occasion.
Nevertheless, the natural scientific world is complicated by the Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience of certain identifiable entities, re-identifiable reliably over periods of years, whose behaviour is either the manifestation or a concealment of a view of the world equivalent in ontological status to that of the scientist.
People may be observed to sleep, eat, walk, talk, etc. We must not be content with observation of this kind alone. Observation of behaviour must be extended by inference to attributions about experience.
Only when we can begin to do this can we really construct the experiential-behavioural system that is the human species. It is quite possible to study the visible, audible, smellable effulgences of human bodies, and much study of human behaviour has been in those terms. One can lump together very large numbers of units of behaviour and regard them as a statistical population, in no way different from the multiplicity constituting a system of non-human objects.
But one will not be studying persons. In a science of persons, I shall state as axiomatic that: behaviour is a function of experience; and both experience and behaviour are always in relation to someone or something other than self. When two or more Grim To The Brim - Leo Kottke - 1971-1976 Did You Hear Me? are in relation, the behaviour of each towards the other is mediated by the experience by each of the other, and the experience of each is mediated by the behaviour of each.
There is no contiguity between the behaviour of one person and that of the other. Much human behaviour can be seen as unilateral or bilateral attempts to eliminate experience. A person may treat another as though he was not a person, and he may act himself as though he was not a person.
There is no contiguity between one person"s experience and another. My experience of you is always mediated through your behaviour. Behaviour that is the direct consequence of impact, as of one billiard-ball hitting another, or experience directly transmitted to experience, as in the possible cases of extra-sensory perception, is not personal.
The relevance of Freud to our time is largely his insight and, Texture - Darius (18) - Framedrag a very considerable extent, his demonstration that the ordinary person is a shrivelled, desiccated fragment of what a person can be.
As adults, we have forgotten most of our childhood, not only its contents but its flavour; as men of the world, we hardly know of the existence of Komm Mit Mir - Various - Evolution (Rödelheim 2000-2001) inner world: we barely remember our dreams, and make little sense of them when we do; as for our bodies, we retain-just sufficient proprioceptive sensations to coordinate our movements and to ensure the minimal requirements for biosocial survival to register fatigue, signals for food, sex, defecation, sleep; beyond that, little or nothing.
Our capacity to think, except in the service of what we are dangerously deluded in supposing is our self-interest, and in conformity with common sense, is pitifully limited: our capacity even to see, hear, touch, taste and smell is so shrouded in veils of mystification that an intensive discipline of un-learning is necessary for anyone before one can begin to experience the world afresh, with innocence, truth and love.
And immediate experience of, in contrast to belief or faith in, a spiritual realm of demons, spirits, Powers, Dominions, Principalities, Seraphim and Cherubim, the Light, is even more remote. As domains of experience become more alien to us, we need greater and greater openmindedness even to conceive of their existence. Many of us do not know, or even believe, that every night we enter Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience of reality in which we forget our waking life as regularly as we forget our dreams when we awake.
Not all psychologists know of phantasy as a modality of experience, and the, as it were, contrapuntal interweaving of the different experiential modes. Many who are aware of phantasy believe that phantasy is the farthest that experience goes under "normal" circumstances. Beyond that are simply "pathological" zones of hallucinations, phantasmagoric mirages, delusions. This state of affairs represents an almost unbelievable devastation of Komm Mit Mir - Various - Evolution (Rödelheim 2000-2001) experience.
Then there is empty chatter about maturity, love, joy, peace. This is itself a consequence of and further occasion for the divorce of our experience, such as is left of it, from our behaviour. What we call "normal" is a product of repression, denial, splitting, projection, introjection and other forms of destructive action on Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience see below.
It is radically estranged from the structure of being. The more one sees this, the more senseless it is to continue with generalised descriptions of supposedly specifically schizoid, schizophrenic, hysterical "mechanisms". There are forms of alienation that are relatively strange to statistically "normal" forms of alienation. The "normally" alienated person, by reason of the fact that he acts more or less like everyone else, is taken to be sane.
Other forms of alienation that are out of step with the prevailing state of alienation are those that are labelled by the "normal" majority as bad or mad. The condition of alienations of being asleep, of being unconscious, of being out of Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience mind, is the condition of the normal man.
Society highly values its normal man. It educates children to lose themselves and to become absurd, and thus to be normal. How much human behaviourwhether the interactions between persons themselves or between groups and groups, is intelligible in terms of human experience? Und Wenn Ein Lied (Radio Edit) - Söhne Mannheims - Und Wenn Ein Lied our inter-human behaviour is unintelligible, in that we are simply the passive vehicles of inhuman processes, whose ends are as obscure as they are at present outside our control, or our own behaviour towards each other is a function of our own experience and our own intentions, however alienated we are from them.
In the latter case, we must take final responsibility for what we make of what we are made of. We will find no intelligibility in behaviour if we see it as an inessential phase in an essentially inhuman process. We have had accounts of men as animals, men as machines, men as biochemical complexes with certain ways of their own, but there remains the greatest difficulty in achieving a human understanding of man in human terms.
Men at all times have been subject, as they believed or experienced, to forces from the stars, from the gods, or from forces that now blow through society itself, appearing Kom Snart Igen - Grete Klitgaard - I Glas Og Ramme Vol.
2 the stars once did to determine human fate. Men have, however, always been weighed down not only by their sense of subordination to fate Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience chance, to ordained external necessities or contingencies, but by a sense that their very own thoughts and feelings, in their most intimate interstices, are the outcome, the resultant, of processes which they undergo.
A man can estrange himself from himself by mystifying himself and others. He can also have what he does stolen from him by the agency of others.
If we are stripped of experience, we are stripped of our deeds; and if our deeds are, so to say, taken out of our hands like toys from the hands of children, we are bereft of our humanity. We cannot be deceived. Men can and do destroy the humanity of other men, and the condition of this possibility is that we are interdependent.
We are not self-contained monads producing no effects on each other except our reflections. We are both acted upon, changed for good or ill, by other men; and we are agents who act upon others to affect them in different ways.
Each of us is the other to the others. Man is a patient-agent, agent-patient, interexperiencing and interacting with his fellows. It is quite certain that unless we can regulate our behaviour much more satisfactorily than at present, then we are going to exterminate ourselves.
But as we experience the world, so we act, and this principle holds even when action conceals rather than discloses our experience. We are not able even to think adequately about the behaviour that is at the annihilating edge. But what we think is less than what we know: what we know is less than what we love: what we love is so much less than what there is. And to that precise extent we are so much less than what we are.
Yet if nothing else, each time a new baby is born there is a possibility of reprieve. Each child is a new being, a potential prophet, a new spiritual prince, a new spark of light, precipitated into the outer darkness. Who are we to decide that it is hopeless? The "surface" experience of self and other emerges from a less differentiated experiential matrix. Ontogenetically the very early experiential schemata are unstable, and are surmounted: but never entirely.
To a greater or lesser extent, the first ways in which the world has made sense to us continues to underpin our whole subsequent experience and actions. Our first way of experiencing the world is largely what psychoanalysts have called phantasy. This modality has its own validity, its own rationality. Infantile phantasy may become a closed enclave, a dissociated undeveloped "unconscious", but this need not be so.
This eventuality is another form of alienation. Phantasy as encountered in many people today is split off from what the person regards as his mature, sane, rational, adult experience.
We do not then see phantasy in its true function but experienced merely as an inclusive, sabotaging infantile nuisance. For most of our social life, we largely gloss over this underlying phantasy level of our relationship. Phantasy is a particular way of relating to the world. It is part of, sometimes the essential part of, the meaning or sense le sens : Merleau-Ponty implicit in action.
As relationship we may be dissociated from it: as meaning we may not grasp it: as experience it may escape our notice in different ways. That is, it is possible to speak of phantasy being "unconscious", if this general statement is Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience given specific connotations.
However, although phantasy can be unconscious that is, although we may be unaware of experience in this mode, or refuse to admit that our behaviour implies an experiential relationship or a relational experience that gives it a Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experienceoften apparent to others if not to ourselves phantasy need not be thus split from us, whether in terms of its content or modality.
Phantasy, in short, as I am using the term, is always experiential, and meaningful: and, if the person is not dissociated from it, relational in a valid way. Two people sit talking. The one Peter is making a point to the other Paul. Laing argued a similar account for psychoses: that the strange behavior and seemingly confused speech of people undergoing a psychotic episode were ultimately understandable as an attempt to communicate worries and concerns, often in situations where this was not possible or not permitted.
Laing was revolutionary in valuing the content of psychotic behaviour and speech as a valid expression of distress, albeit wrapped in an enigmatic language of personal symbolism which is meaningful only from within their situation. Laing never denied the existence of mental illness, but viewed it in a radically different light from his contemporaries. For Laing, mental illness could be a transformative episode whereby the process of undergoing mental distress was compared to a shamanic journey.
The traveler could return from the journey with important insights, and may have become in the views of Laing and his followers a wiser and more grounded person as a result Louis, B. Laing also wrote poetry and his poetry publications include Knotspublished by Penguin and Sonnetspublished by Michael Joseph. In Laing co-founded the UK charity the Philadelphia Associationconcerned with the understanding and relief of mental suffering, which he also chaired.
Laing in the 21st Century Symposium  held annually at Esalen Institutewhere Laing frequently taught. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from R. Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience David Laing.
Laing inperusing The Ashley Book of Knots GovanhillGlasgowScotland. Saint-Tropez Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of ExperienceFrance. If the human race survives, future men will, I suspect, look back on our enlightened epoch as a veritable age of Darkness.
They will presumably be able to savor the irony of the situation with more amusement than we can extract from it. Retrieved 4 October Edinburgh review, introductions to Scottish culture. Laing: a biography. Adrian C. Family Britain London: Bloomsbury. Philadelphia Association. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 13 September Oslo: Norway: Spartacus forlag Spartacus Publishing. Laing: A Life. London: HarperCollinsPublishers. LaingHarvard University Press, p.
Use their A-Z Index to find the relevant documentation. Close Menu Finding and Posting Jobs. This picture has been taken by Andrew Butko. How do you get work experience with an MP? What help is there for offices who wish to take someone on work experience? Do you have computers which people on work experience can use? How long should work experience last? What sort of work should the individuals do?
Metal Force - Politics Of Experience - The Politics Of Experience pupils tend to have shorter work experience periods, ranging from a single day, up to a fortnight. Sixth-formers usually have term-time work experience of one or two weeks. University students may have considerably longer placements from one to nine months, depending on their course of study. What sort of work should work experience people do? There is also a guide produced by the Personnel Advice Service, which can be found here.
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